Note

L1 is left_bumper, L2 is left_trigger, R1/R2 are the right-hand equivalents.

### Button Aliases#

Since both PS4-style and Xbox-Style controllers are FTC legal, there are aliases in the FTC SDK between PS4-style and Xbox-style button naming.

PS4

Xbox

circle

b

cross

a

triangle

y

square

x

share

back

options

start

ps

guide

## Boolean Inputs#

TeleOp OpModes are generally written in iterative style, with a loop that contains code that is called over an over. Under this paradigm, a simple handling of user input could look like

if (gamepad1.a) {
motor.setPower(1);
}
else {
motor.setPower(0);
}


In this situation, this likely does what the driver wants: while the button is held, the motor’s power is set to 1, and otherwise the power is set to 0. Since writing the same power to a motor multiple times has no effect on the motor’s behavior, this works perfectly fine. However, issues arise when wanting to do something once when a button is pressed. For example, it is tempting to write something like this to get a press of a or b to adjust a servo.

if (gamepad1.a) {
servo.setPosition(servo.getPosition()+0.1);
}
servo.setPosition(servo.getPosition()-0.1);
}


However, this will behave unpredictably, as each time the button is pressed, the setPosition method will be called multiple times as the loop frequency changes as does the button press length. There are a few techniques to avoid this, however they all require comparing the gamepad state to the gamepad state in the previous loop; therefore, it is necessary to store it.

While each gamepad input’s previous state could be stored individually in a variable, e.g. boolean previousA, this very quickly gets annoying. Luckily, the FTC SDK provides a way to copy gamepad states, with gamepad.copy(gamepadToCopy).

Note

In addition to storing the gamepad state for the previous iteration of the loop, the gamepad state for the current iteration of the loop is also stored. This is necessary because if the state of a button was always read from gamepad1/gamepad2, it could change between reading the value and storing the previous value. This is because gamepad1/gamepad2 update concurrently for LinearOpMode, and so can change during a loop iteration.

In a LinearOpMode based TeleOp program, storing both current and previous gamepad state could look like:

public void runOpMode() {
// By setting these values to new Gamepad(), they will default to all
// boolean values as false and all float values as 0

// other initialization code goes here

while (opModeIsActive()) {
try {
// Store the gamepad values from the previous loop iteration in
// previousGamepad1/2 to be used in this loop iteration.
// This is equivalent to doing this at the end of the previous
// loop iteration, as it will run in the same order except for
// the first/last iteration of the loop.

// Store the gamepad values from this loop iteration in
// currentGamepad1/2 to be used for the entirety of this loop iteration.
// This prevents the gamepad values from changing between being
// used and stored in previousGamepad1/2.
}
catch (RobotCoreException e) {
// Swallow the possible exception, it should not happen as
}

// Main teleop loop goes here
}
}


### Rising Edge Detector#

Why is it called a rising edge detector?

A signal edge is a transition in a digital signal. In this case, the digital signal is the gamepad input, which is low when not held and high when held. The rising edge is the transition from low to high, and the falling edge is the transition from high to low.

The most commonly used technique is a rising edge detector. It allows code to be run only once when the button is initially pressed, as opposed to every loop while it is held down. It works by checking that the button is currently pressed, but was not pressed in the previous loop. For example, inside of a TeleOp loop:

if (currentGamepad1.a && !previousGamepad1.a) {
servo.setPosition(servo.getPosition() + 0.1);
}


This will increase the servo position by 0.1 exactly once per press of a.

### Falling Edge Detector#

A very similar technique is a falling edge detector. It allows code to be run only once when the button is released, as opposed to every loop while it is held down. It works by checking that the button is currently not pressed, but was pressed in the previous loop. For example, inside of a TeleOp loop:

if (!currentGamepad1.b && previousGamepad1.b) {
servo.setPosition(servo.getPosition() - 0.1);
}


This will decrease the servo position by 0.1 exactly once per release of b.

Note

One button can run different code on the rising and falling edge. This is mainly useful for fairly complex interactions and so is not demonstrated here.

### Toggles#

One common use case for rising edge detectors is to control toggles. Toggles can be used to have a button for the robot to switch between states; for example, turning an intake on and off. This can be done for any number of states but is most commonly done between two. To make a toggle between two states, a rising edge detector is used to set a boolean to its opposite and then that boolean is used to control an action.

#### Example#

Within the initialization code:

boolean intakeToggle = false;


Inside of the corresponding TeleOp loop:

// Rising edge detector
// This will set intakeToggle to true if it was previously false
// and intakeToggle to false if it was previously true,
// providing a toggling behavior.
intakeToggle = !intakeToggle;
}

// Using the toggle variable to control the robot.
if (intakeToggle) {
intakeMotor.setPower(1);
}
else {
intakeMotor.setPower(0);
}


This will turn on the intake when a is pressed, and leave it on until it is pressed again.

Note

The less a driver has to keep in their head about the state of the robot the less they can screw up. Since toggles mean that a button does different things every time it is pressed, consider alternate solutions. This is especially true for toggles with more than two states.